Survival Gear List: What’s On Your List

Deluxe Emergency Survival Backpack Kit (Great Price)

In order to properly prepare for an emergency of any type, you need to have a survival gear list. It is important to prepare a list as a family, because each member may think of a circumstance where additional items may be necessary. If you are prepared for the worst, it may just save your life. Survival items should be gathered and placed in a readily known, and available location for all family members, and should contain enough items for three days per family member. The three day rule is to make life sustainable for that amount of time considering you would not have any provisions. These are some very basic items to include in your survival list.

You will need to have food for each family member and pets for three days. Non-perishable foods should be stored in a cool, dry place, and should include each of the food groups. You should also have one gallon of water per day, per family member for hydration, and sanitation purposes. This takes up quite a bit of space, so storing these items in a clean, mobile trash can would be a good place to keep them. Electricity will most likely not be available, so you will need a portable radio, flashlights, flares, heating devices, extra batteries for all items, and a manual can opener for your food. If you have a NOAA radio, emergency alerts and information will be updated, and will inform you of present and upcoming conditions.

A first aid kit is crucial to the survival gear list. A basic first aid kit should contain sterile gloves and bandages, antibiotics and antibacterial towelettes, dust masks, cold and heat packs, a thermometer, eyewash solution, scissors, tweezers, prescription drugs for a month, non-prescription pain relievers, your family medical history, and a first aid manual. Even the most basic kit can be a life-saver in emergencies. You should provide one in your three day survival gear, and also in each vehicle that you own. If you happen to be a first responder, it will be an invaluable tool to perhaps save a life.

Having important information with you in an emergency is very important. You should include a cell phone with all family members’ contact information entered. You should include an extra battery, and make sure that each family member knows who to contact in case of emergency. It is important that others know where you are, and if you are forced to move to a shelter, your loved ones can be notified quickly. Emergency personnel may not be able to respond immediately, but it is necessary to have those emergency numbers programmed into your phone, and memory.

Other items that you may want to include in your survival gear are extra clothes, toiletries, garbage bags and ties for waste, blankets and sleeping bags. If you should be evacuated and need to relocate to a shelter, friend’s home, or another family member’s home, these things will make your stay much easier. It is not pleasant to think about disastrous situations, but if you are well-prepared, you have a better chance of keeping your family safe. Preparing a survival gear list is an efficient way in which to get the necessities that you and your family will need, and to make you feel prepared in case an emergency arises.


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Emergency Survival Kit: Do You Have One?

Deluxe Emergency Survival Kit (Great Price)

The purpose of an emergency survival kit is to have necessities available in one place that could be transported to another location, or a storage of basic necessities in one location for an extended period of time during an emergency. Survival kits are called Bug-Out Bags (BOBs), Personal Emergency Relocation Kits (PERKs), and Get Out Of Dodge (GOOD) kits. For transportable kits, only the basic necessities are included, and are based upon what emergencies you may encounter. Other survival kits are prepared in the event of emergencies occurring at home, when you would need to plan for an extended period of time, with no electricity or water available.

Shelter can be provided somewhat, by obtaining Mylar coated space blankets, to retain body heat, if you are out in the open. Ponchos, or garbage bags can provide wind or rain protection, and you will need waterproof matches and a catalytic heater with fuel. Signaling devices would include flares, whistles, LED flashlights with extra lithium batteries, laser pointers, a compass, lantern, and a survival manual. Tools that you may need are a swiss army knife, can opener, trash bags for waste material, candles, and a NOAA radio for updates on conditions, or evacuations.

Food should consist of canned foods, MREs, and high-energy food bars. For a more comprehensive supply storage, staples can be added such as flour, grains, salt, soda, oats, wheat, and powdered milk. These items should be rotated every three months, discarding expired supplies. Food should be kept in plastic containers, and in a cool, dry area. It is important that these supplies are readily available to all family members, and each member should be aware of the location. Do not forget pets, or other supplies such as baby formula, or diabetic foods. Water should be stored along with water purification tablets. Each person should have 1 gallon per day reserved. The rule is to have enough emergency supplies for at least three days.

First aid kits are critical, and should be kept in all vehicles, and in several places around the home. They should include sterile gloves, bandages, gauze, adhesive tape, scissors, knife, tweezers, antibiotic cream, antibacterial wipes, salt tablets to prevent dehydration, mineral supplements, sunscreen, dust masks, and non-prescription medication for pain relief and diarrhea. A family medical history should be included, with a month’s supply of prescription medication any family member is taking. Epinephrine and antihistamine should also be included for any allergic reactions. Each first aid kit should also contain a first aid manual to refer to, in case of emergency.

Sometimes emergency survival kits can be emergency specific, and contain fewer items. If you decide to prepare a more comprehensive emergency survival kit, everyone in the family needs to contribute to the list, know what is there, and how to use it. A small, portable survival kit needs to be centrally located however, in case you are to be evacuated, and cannot take shelved goods with you. Emergency planning is most important in deciding the what, and where of your survival kits. An emergency survival kit is a group effort, and everyone in the family needs to know what it is for, where it is, and how it is to be used.


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Search & Rescue: Look To Save

CERT Book For All Disaster Needs

Search &
Rescue (SAR)
teams look for missing people, in order to save their lives. They also provide aid to people who are experiencing distress, or are in imminent danger. Search and rescue teams use all resources available, to assist in disasters, and to locate and save lost, or missing persons who may otherwise not survive on their own, due to disasters, or from being lost in unknown surroundings. Search & rescue teams are first responders to people who are in dire need of help, just to survive due to circumstances beyond their control. There are sub-fields of search &
rescue
teams, based upon territory, geographical differences in land, and conditions of the danger involved, or emergency situation.

The major specialties of search and rescue are:

Mountain Rescue (MRA) – search teams are formed specifically for mountainous, and rugged terrain. Victims are usually hikers, snow skiers, mountain climbers, or possible plane passengers in distress.

Ground Search and Rescue (GSAR) – teams are organized for on land or inland waterway searches. SAR dogs are also used during these searches. Victims may include people with Alzheimer’s disease, autism, or dementia, and may be conducted in urban areas, but are not considered Urban search and rescues.

Urban Search and Rescue (US&R), also known as Heavy Urban Search and Rescue (HUSAR) – the US&R team is organized to locate and rescue people from collapsed structures, or other industrial entrapments. This team includes emergency agencies such as the police department, fire department, emergency medical technicians, medical doctors and nurses. Most US&R responders are trained in structural collapse rescue, dangers of live electrical wires, broken natural gas lines, and hazards related to earthquakes, terrorist attacks, tornadoes, and hurricanes.

Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) – these CSAR teams are used during a war, within or near combat zones on the battlefield to locate and/or rescue soldiers and military personnel.

Air-Sea Rescue (ASR) – teams are developed to search for survivors of emergency water landings of aircrafts, or those who have survived the loss of their sea vessel. Flying boats, float planes, amphibious helicopters, land helicopters with hoists, and surface vessels are used in this type of rescue procedure.

In the United States, search & rescue standards are developed by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), and the United states National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). A search and rescue team consists of a command staff, managed by the National Incident Command Structure (ICS), which interacts with other emergency agencies and trained SAR members, and volunteers.

Training for search and rescue field deployment requires that you be over the age of 18, and attend classes for certification which include radio communications, using a map and compass, basic land search, and team management, or base operations. The National Association for Search and Rescue (NASAR), offers education, training, and certification upon completion of training and written test. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) also offer education for search and rescue. Search &
rescue
begins as soon as the officials are aware of the missing person, natural disaster, or accident, and stops only when there are no more survivors. Being on a search & rescue team takes time and dedication, but it could save lives.

 


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Reasons To Have A Survival Handbook

CERT Book For All Disaster Needs

Getting to enjoy life can be a wonderful thing, but it can also be complex at the same time because of all that is happening in the world. This is when you should learn about the reasons why you need to have a survival handbook. Some of the reasons you need to have this is it can educate you on what types of plants are safe to eat, allow you to know how to properly purify the water you drink, teach you the way to build a shelter, and even provide you with information on how to treat wounds.

Knowing which plants are safe to eat can be hard to figure out at times. This is when some people need to realize this type of information is available in the survival handbook and can help prevent you from eating a plant which is poisonous. Without this type of help, you can easily select a plant to eat only to learn later on it is full of poison.

Purifying water after some type of disaster can be very important to guaranteeing you will live. If you cannot do this, then the chances are good you will have some type of problem in finding something to drink at times. However, with this type of book on hand, it will teach you how to set up your own water purification system.

Shelter is the thing you need to have to stay out of the elements. When you do not have the proper shelter, it will be easy for you to be exposed to the weather and this can lead to you not being able to live for a long period of time. However, these types of survival handbook will teach you about how to build the shelter which can help you live longer while you are waiting to find the permanent shelter you need to have.

Treating your wounds can be hard to do at times, but with these guides it will teach you how to properly treat the wounds. With the proper treatment, you will be able to continue to live your life like you want to because you do not have to be concerned about the wounds becoming infected. Without this type of treatment, even in a disaster, it will be easy for the wound to become infected and this can lead to the wound spreading the infection in your entire body.

Being able to have the best chance of surviving an accident can be hard to do at times. This is the time you may need to learn more about the reasons to have a survival handbook to help you cope with the trying times you may be facing at any period of time. When you know these reasons, it will be easy to have the book and know you will be able to live. Some of these reasons will be these can educate you on the plants to eat, how to purify the water, learning how to build shelter, and even getting to learn how to proper treat wounds.


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Guide To Survival

Ultimate Survival Smart Kit with First Aid

Being prepared for any emergency is the best way to survive. Whether it is a personal emergency, or a natural disaster, if you are prepared, you will more likely get through it without incident. Some accidents can not be foreseen, but if you have the correct items for emergencies, you are a step ahead.

Emergency preparedness is making sure that you know what could happen, and planning for it. If you have supply kits, first aid kits, a family emergency plan, and know what you are to do before, during and after emergencies, you have a much better chance of staying protected and surviving. The guide to survival in any type of emergency, is being prepared, and periodically reviewing your plan together as a family, or as a community.

First aid kits and survival kits are critical on the list of a guide to survival. You can purchase already packed first aid kits, or you may assemble them yourself. Similar automobile emergency kits should also be available in each car that you own. The items that are most basic, and necessary, are:

  • Sterile gloves – for cleaning and dressing wounds.
  • Sterile bandages- for dressing wounds and applying pressure to bleeding points.
  • Antiseptic cleansing agent – to sterilize wounds, or dressings to be used.
  • Antibacterial towelettes – to clean hands, or wounds.
  • Adhesive bandages in various sizes- to protect wounds from infection.
  • Eye wash solution – for eye damage due to smoke from fire, or chemicals and debris in the air.
  • Thermometer – for personal illness, or to check body heat of a person in shock.
  • Non-prescription drugs- aspirin, for heart attack victims, non-aspirin pain relievers, anti-diarrhea
  • medication, antacids, and laxatives for personal illness.
  • Scissors – to cut clothing off of victim, so that injury is not worsened by tearing, and opening food
  • packets.
  • Tweezers – to clean debris out of wound, or skin, preventing infection.
  • Petroleum jelly/Lubricant – to lubricate limbs which are stuck, to slide them out of debris.
  • Prescription drugs – of all family members, with a family medical history chart, in case you happento be injured.

A Basic emergency or disaster survival supply kit may be stored in a large rolling trashcan, so that it is mobile. The survival supply kit would include the first aid kit, and have enough supplies for each member of the family, for three days. This supply kit could be relocated, in case of evacuation, and should include:

  • Water – one gallon of water per person, per day, for at least three days.
  • Non-perishable foods – a supply for each member of family (and pets) for three days, stored in a
  • cool, dry, and easily accessible place.
  • Portable Radio/NOAA Weather Radio – for any weather, emergency, or evacuation updates.
  • Flashlights, Flares, Emergency candles – to provide light if there is no electricity, or to signal for help.
  • Batteries – extra batteries will be needed for your flashlights, radios, and heating devices.
  • Dust masks – to keep your lungs clear of any chemicals, or debris in the air.
  • Manual can opener – to open your canned goods, since there may be no electricity.
  • Cell Phone – to communicate with emergency agencies, shelters, or other family members. Also include an extra battery.
  • Clothes – in case you are relocated to a shelter, or other family member’s home.
  • Toiletries – enough for three days of relocation due to evacuation.
  • Garbage bags and ties – for waste products.
  • Blankets, Sleeping bags, Coats – for extra provided warmth if there is no electric or gas heat, and also for temporary relocation.
  • Guide to Survival manual – book, ebook, or even your own personalized plan outlined, just to remind you of basic things about sanitation, hazards, or first aid treatment.

It is so important to be prepared, and to have a family, or community plan for emergency situations. Your guide to survival, is really your emergency preparedness plan, and how well you execute it. When you are prepared to manage disastrous situations, you can better insure your family’s safety, and be able to help others who may need assistance. It is not fun to think about being faced with an emergency situation, but if you are prepared for any circumstance, you will more likely be able to survive, both physically and mentally.


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Disaster Preparedness: Are You Really Prepared?

2 Person Economy Disaster Preparedness Kit

Disaster preparedness is a critical issue that can have a huge impact on the life of the people affected in a disaster and which can save millions of lives, if initiated and implemented in a planned and proper way. Many countries both developed and developing, face different kinds of disasters each year such as floods, earthquakes, wildfires, tsunamis etc. For these disaster prone countries, disaster preparedness is truly a critical matter, as it can, not only save them from harm, but also ensure the safety of their property as well.

Disaster preparedness is nothing but the advanced planning, groundwork and preparation to embrace the impact of the disaster which might be expected or even unexpected. No one has control over nature and also the natural calamities that the earth faces every year. Unfortunately, modern science has not made an innovation to stop them occurring, since they are beyond the control of humans. In this situation, disaster preparedness is the only way to deal with such events and end up on the safe side. This is one of the major reason why most of the developed countries have invested a huge amount of resources in disaster preparedness. The developing countries are also not far behind in the process of disaster preparedness and are developing their own tools to deal with all natural calamities.

Some of these examples of disaster preparedness can be seen in Japan, which has shown a great deal of dedication and spirit while fighting with the last earthquake and tsunami. They have shown the world, how a country can survive in a situation where many of us would have given up any hope for life. They have also shown us that an alarm system is a critical element in disaster preparedness systems, which can inform and allow the citizens of country to prepare and move to a safe place in case of emergency. The second requisite for a perfect disaster preparedness system is the supportive infrastructure that will embrace the first impact of a disaster and keep the people safe. The last and most important part of disaster preparedness is to have the emergency services and support that will provide help to the victims of the disaster when they will need it most. Since Japan had ensured all of them in their disaster preparedness, they have survived such a strong blow to their country and they are still standing tall.

However, disaster preparedness is not enough to ensure the safety of the people in most emergencies. Many people regard disaster preparedness as only a precaution against the powerful nature. However, the fury of nature is beyond our anticipation and imagination. Hence, we shouldn’t relax just by developing a disaster preparedness system. Rather, we should take a holistic look into the matter of disasters and move to a sustainable lifestyle, which will reduce our negative impact on mother earth. In addition, we should also keep a close eye on our disaster preparedness, which will definitely save us from the coming disaster.

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Survival Pack: Do You Have These Survival Pack Items Handy?

Ultimate Smart Survival Pack with First Aid (Under $30)

Because disaster can strike at any moment, preparing a survival pack can keep your family ready for accidents, fires, tornadoes or other weather related tragedies. In addition to having a survival pack in your home, think about storing one in an outbuilding and a vehicle. This way you will be able to grab at least one that is away from the danger area.

The most common items that people consider packing inside a survival pack are medical supplies. Bandages, pain reliever, alcohol and ointments are great for minor injuries but not really considered a type of survival aid. If you have been caught in the crossfire of flying timber and are experiencing moderate to heavy bleeding, you need to get the bleeding stopped fast. Silver nitrate with additives that fight bacteria is a product that can clot bleeding at the source and prevents infection from exposure to dirt. There are many excellent types of these products on the market made especially for survival kits. The U.S. Military supplies field trauma medics with this type of emergency first-aid, saving thousands of lives each year.

Rehydration salts is another essential item to include in your survival pack. Loss of body fluids due to illness or heat exhaustion can lead your body into a downward spiral that can never be repaired. If a sick family member cannot keep water down or suffers from diarrhea and there is no hospital to rush to, you need to get their system under control. Fresh water is also taken for granted in this day and age but what if your water supply were suddenly compromised? Water filters that attach to water bottles are a convenient way to make sure your water is free of dangerous elements that may have gotten into your water supply. Test kits also come in compact units to make sure that signs of radiation or other chemicals are not present in your water supply. There are also small pouches of water that can be purchased but water is heavy and hard to maneuver if you find yourself walking for miles.

A windup radio and flashlight can be invaluable if you find yourself alone and scared in the midst of a disaster. A space blanket and leather gloves can also keep you warm and a dust mask will keep unknown particles from the atmosphere from doing harm to your nose, throat and lungs. Waterproof bags may sound unimportant but when faced with water and dampness, finding comfort in dry items is wonderful. Always keep a roll on hand.

Food is also imperative to keep in a survival pack. You can find meals ready to eat or MREs that are designed to give you the nutrition needed until a supply of safe food can be located. Plan on a food supply for at least 72 hours so that you will be able to keep your strength at its fullest level. No one likes to think about disaster striking but in the world that we live in today, being prepared with at least one survival pack is only logical.

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Search And Rescue: Are You Prepared?

Great One Person Professional Rescue Kit

Many natural disasters that occur may leave many people unaccounted for in debris, requiring medical treatment for survival. Even with the best planning efforts, things can happen to us that leave us in vulnerable positions, needing assistance. Search and rescue (SAR) teams are specifically coordinated and trained to help people who are in need of such help. Whether it is searching for provisions for those people who are in distress because of a natural disaster, those who are lost in the wilderness, or those who are in an unfamiliar place due to a mental disease, search and rescuers are dedicated to helping those who are caught in a disastrous situation.

There are many specialized sub-categories of search and rescue, based upon the terrain to be covered, and conditions of the rescue to be attempted. These categories include:

Ground search and rescue – involves searching on land or inland waterways, and uses search and
rescue dogs. Ground SAR helps to locate persons with autism, alzheimers, and dementia, and may
include searching urban areas, but is not considered urban SAR.

Urban search and rescue (US & R) – is also called heavy urban SAR (HUSAR), and is locating
and rescuing persons from collapsed buildings or other building entrapments located in cities, or
urban areas. This team includes police officers, fire and emergency departments, and hospital
personnel. Most US & R responders have specialized training in the structural collapse of buildings,
dangers involved with live electrical wires, broken gas lines, and hazards characteristic of
earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, and terrorist attacks.

Combat search and rescue (CSAR) – is conducted during war, within or near combat zones and on
battlefields to find and rescue soldiers and military personnel.

Mountain rescue – is also known as the mountain rescue association (MRA), and the team searches
for persons, lost or stranded specifically in rugged, mountainous terrain. Snow skiers, avalanche
victims, lost or injured hikers, mountain climbers, or aircrafts that have crashed, or are otherwise
stranded, with passengers who are injured.

Air-search and rescue (ASR) – is the search for or rescue of those stranded at sea, due to
malfunction of boat, ship, or aircraft. The ASR uses flying boats, floatplanes, amphibious and non
-amphibious helicopters equipped with hoists, and surface vessels to locate and save passengers of
aircrafts downed at sea, sailors of downed ships, and passengers of sea vessels in distress.

Search and rescuers must be in good health, 18 years of age, and to be on a specific team, must be trained, and pass a certification exam. Training for field deployment usually lasts six months, and meets four hours per week. Instruction is in learning to use equipment and resources provided, radio communications equipment, rules and regulations for radio communications, determining distances on maps, field note taking, evidence finding and clues, tracking movement, ropes and knots, how K-9 teams are used as complimentary team members, and team definitions and responsibilities. Agencies which provide specialized training for interested individuals, are the National Association for Search and Rescue (NASAR), the Mountain Rescue Association (MRA), and the United States National Fire Protection Association (NEPA).

Using whatever resources are at their disposal, search and rescue teams assist in disasters, to locate and save lost, missing, or desperate persons in imminent danger, either because of accident, natural disaster, or impairment. These responders have very difficult tasks to complete, and often donate their time and effort in order to save someone’s life. It is important to them, and they meet or often exceed the standards required by training. The National Association of Volunteer Search and Rescue Teams (NAVSAR) provides a support network for the nation’s search and rescuers. They do a sometimes impossible job to locate and save many people in terrible danger, often risking their own lives.

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First Supplies You’ll Need

Rescue One First Aid Supplies

Rescue One First Aid Supplies

In any emergency situation, you should be equipped with the basic first supplies. A first supply kit can be purchased, or personally assembled to assist you in case of an emergency. The kit should include the basic necessities for treating injuries, whether personal, or due to a natural disaster occurring. If you have these basic items with you in your automobile, home, or survival kit, you will be more likely to save your family, yourself, and possibly someone else in need of assistance. The first aid kits need to be readily available, its location should be known and accessible to all family members, and its contents should be periodically checked and updated. First supplies are essential to any first responders, because it is the only help that a victim might get until professionals arrive, and in some cases could be the difference between life and death. First supplies that should be in your first aid kit are:

  • Sterile gloves, and bandages
  • Antibiotic towelettes and cleansing agent
  • Antibiotic ointment, burn ointment, or cream
  • Adhesive bandages in various sizes
  • Cold/Heat packs
  • Cotton balls or cotton swabs
  • Eye wash solution
  • Thermometer
  • Non-prescription drugs such as aspirin, and non-aspirin pain relievers
  • Anti-diarrhea medication
  • Antacids
  • Laxatives
  • Scissors
  • Tweezers
  • Petroleum jelly or lubricant
  • Prescription drugs for each family member
  • Family medical history chart
  • Emergency contact numbers of emergency personnel and other family members
  • Flashlight and flares
  • First aid manual

Along with these very basic essential elements, you will want to include blankets, flashlights, and flares, for signaling help. First supplies should be located in your home, in your survival kit, at work, and in each of your automobiles. The first supplies are basic to preserving life immediately, whereas the survival kit is an extended version, which includes the first supplies. The first aid kits are portable, and readily available for any type of immediate emergency, and you are the first responder to the scene. It is important to review the first aid manual occasionally, so that when you are in a frantic situation, you do not have to think about what to do, it should come instinctively in most cases. If you are prepared with the basic first aid items, knowledge of how to use them, and if they are readily available, you can more easily help those in need until you can seek professional help for the victim.

In a natural disaster situation, your survival kit will be extended. You will need to supply not only first aid kits, but also supplies for at least three days of food and water for your family and pets. Additional items to include would be clothes and toiletries for possible evacuation of your home, cell phones and extra batteries, sleeping bags, respiratory masks, and garbage bags with ties, for waste. When your family discusses all possible emergencies when making your emergency preparedness plan, other items may be added to your list. The most important thing about first supplies, is to have them readily available at any time, so that you can be of assistance to someone in need. Survival is based on trying to think of possible emergency scenarios, planning to overcome them, and having what you will need to do it.

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Think First Aid First

Ultimate 234 Piece First Aid Kit

Ultimate 234 Piece First Aid Kit

In an emergency situation when a life is in danger, first aid must come first if there are no professionals available. Part of emergency preparedness comes from being prepared for the unexpected. It is much easier to be prepared if you have a first aid kit, when you are faced with helping someone in an emergency situation. First aid is providing initial, or emergency care for an illness, or injury, until further professional help can attend to the injury. In some natural disasters, the paramedics, or rescuers may not be able to get to your location quickly, or at all, so if you are prepared with at least the essential knowledge and materials, it will be helpful in a dire situation. Being able to preserve life, prevent further injury, and promote recovery is the primary goal of the person giving the initial aid, or first aid.

The first aid “ABC’s” are Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The airway of an injured person must be cleared first if blocked, to prevent choking. Rescue breathing, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may need to be given to the individual. Unless you are trained to give CPR, you could possibly cause serious damage to the injured person, by pressing in the wrong place, or pushing too hard, crushing ribs. It is important to get the proper training for CPR before actually using this procedure. The letter “D” was added to the first aid alphabet, for Deadly bleeding, and Defibrillation, also in the category of circulation. The important things to do quickly, but calmly, are to restore breathing, stop bleeding, maintain circulation, and prevent or treat shock, in this order. You must work quickly and methodically, in a manner which will not alarm the victim. If you can stabilize the victim, hopefully you will soon be able to seek a professional’s assistance.

The victim should remain lying down until you assess what type of injury, and how serious the injury is. If there is vomiting involved, you may turn the injured on his or her side, to prevent choking however. Move the victim as little as possible, in case of unknown spinal injury, and try to keep them calm, if conscious. You will need to cut their clothing off if necessary to see the wound, preventing further injury. Immobilize any suspected breaks or fractures, so that they will not become worse. Keep the victim’s body warm with a blanket or coat, and try to maintain a normal body temperature. If profuse bleeding is involved, put pressure on the wound, or pressure points, if you are familiar with them, before you try a constricting band or tourniquet. If there is hemorrhaging involved, and pressure with a sterile cloth does not work, the constricting band may be used. It is crucial that the bleeding stops, because if half of you body’s blood is lost, death usually results.

The last area to be addressed is shock. In any traumatic accident or event, shock usually follows. The signs of shock are sometimes a weak and rapid pulse, shallow breathing , and rapid or irregular breathing. The body temperature to the touch is lowered, so they may feel cold, but they are also sweating noticeably. Their skin may look pale, or have a bluish, or reddish color, and the pupils will be dilated, or the black of the eye is enlarged. They may be extremely thirsty, weak, feel faint, and experience dizziness, or nausea. The most important thing to remember, is to do the best that you can do, with what you have, under the circumstances. First aid first, may be the only help that the victim has at the moment, and you could be the first person available to save their life.

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